Vodič kroz objektive

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OSNOVNI POJMOVI

Žarišna duljina (Focal length) –  udaljenost od optičkog središta leće do žarišne točke u kojoj je oštrina beskonačna. Žarišna duljina zapravo određuje vidni kut objektiva. Izražava se u milimetrima. Veća žarišna duljina za posljedicu ima uži kut snimanja. Udaljeniji predmeti će se dobiti bližima. Kraća žarišna duljina ima za posljedicu širi kut snimanja. Time je moguće snimanje širih kadrova.Važno je napomenuti da su žarišne duljine u pravilu izračunate za 35mm film.


 Primjer istog kadra fotografiranog različitim žarišnim duljinama – s lijeva nadesno : 24mm, 50mm, 200 mm, 800 mm

 

Zoom faktor – omjer maksimalne i minimalne žarišne duljine nekog objektiva. Na primjer : teleobjektiv oznake 80-200 mm ima zoom faktor 2,5, dok objektiv 17-55 ima zoom faktor 3,235. Kod objektiva fiksne žarišne duljine , npr. 28, 35, 50, 85, 105 mm zoom faktor je po definiciji jednak jedinici. Neki kompakti iz ultrazoom klase imaju objektive zoom faktora do 26x. Međutim, kvaliteta fotografije u usporedbi sa profesionalnim objektivima i nije baš neka.
Najkvalitetniji objektivi imaju zoom faktor objektiva između 2,5 – 3.

 

Faktor izreza (Crop factor) – je faktor kojim se množi žarišna duljina 35mm ekvivalenta da se dobije stvarna žarišna duljina uslijed drugačije dimenzije senzora. Digitalni fotoaparati imaju nešto manje senzore od 35 mm filma. Za posljedicu se dobija veća žarišna duljina jer objekti snimanja ispadaju još bliže. Kod kompaktnih aparata se u pravilu ne izražava faktor izreza već se preračunata fokalna duljina izražava na samom objektivu. Kod DSLR-a se ona mora računati, jer je u pravilo izražena za 35mm standard. Primjera radi, crop factor za Nikon digitalna tijela koja nisu full frame je 1,5. Što znači, ako na njega npr. imate postavljen objektiv 80-200 stvarne žarišne duljine su 120-300 mm.


Blenda, otvor objektiva (Aperture) – svaki objektiv ima mogućnost reguliranja otvora kroz koji prolazi svjetlost. Ukoliko je više otvoren, prolazi više svjetla i vrijeme potrebno za osvjetljavanje filma ili senzora je kraće. Ako je manje otvoren, ekspozicije su dulje. Otvor blende izražava se takozvanim f- brojem. On je po definiciji omjer žarišne duljine objektiva i promjera otvora objektiva. Znači, čisto matematički gledano, što je f-broj manji, otvor je veći.

 

Dubinska oštrina (Depth of Field DOF)- je raspon udaljenosti ispred i iza objekta snimanja koji će se na fotografiji činiti oštrim. Ovisi o f-broju : što je objektiv bolje zatvoren, to je dubinska oštrina veća i obratno.



Ilustracija različitih dubinskih oštrina: gore snimnjeno sa f – 5.6, dolje s f -32


Minimalna udaljenost izoštravanja (Minimal Focus Distance) – objektivi su, uslijed svoje konstrukcije, ograničeni na minimalnu blizinu objekta kojeg mogu izoštriti. Ukoliko je objekt bliže, nije ga moguće ni na koji način izoštriti. Jedino rješenje je odmaknuti se od objekta snimanja. Minimalna udaljenost izoštravanja je dana uobičajeno za svaki objektiv u tablici proizvođača. Postoje makro (mikro) objektivi kojima je minimalna udaljenost smanjena pa se je moguće bliže približiti objektu snimanja. Idealni za insekte, cvjetiće tj. općenito za makro fotografiju.


VRSTE OBJEKTIVA

 Najosnovnija podjela objektiva je prema njihovoj žarišnoj duljini. Prema tom kriteriju dijele se na: širokokutne, normalne i tele-objektive.


Širokokutni objektivi - karakteristika im je kratka žarišna duljina (35mm naniže) koja kao posljedicu ima širi kut snimanja, tj. više toga stane u kadar. Dubinska oštrina im je velika. Zbog širokih kutova snimanja na rubovima kadra često dolazi do deformacija slike. Slično se dešava, ako smo relativno blizu objektu snimanja. Minimalna udaljenost izoštravanja im je mala, tako da se objektu snimanja može prići vrlo blizu. Svejedno, objekt na slici će biti malen zbog širokog kuta snimanja. Upotrebljavaju se najviše za fotografiranje krajolika i arhitekture, no zbog iskrivljavanja slike, često se koriste za eksperimentiranje i humor.

NAMJENA

Ekstremni širokokutni: 12-24 mm

Interijeri i ekstremni efekti s “razvlačenjem” prostora. Nisu posebno korisni za pejsaže,
naprosto zato što paktički nigdje nećete naći prizor koji je kao cjelina prikladan za snimanje.
Najčešće nešto negdje smeta, pa bolje ispadne vađenje detalja. Eventualno, neki prizor s vrha planine ili u pustinji mogao bi biti dovoljno “čist” za hvatanje ovakvim objektivom.

Širokokutni: 28-35mm

Pejsaži. Ove žarišne duljine su granica širine unutar koje se isplati slikati pejsaž. Za interijere je ovo donja granica upotrebljivosti, isto kao i za razvlačenje prostora, jer je efekt previše “normalan”. Ponekad odlično posluži za dinamične portrete.

    
 








Normalni objektivi
– žarišna duljina im je otprilike jednaka dijagonali filma odnosno senzora. Za 35mm film je to 50 mm, za 120 mm film je to 90 mm. Kut gledanja im je oko 50-55 stupnjeva i prikazuju sliku veličine otprilike kao što je vidi ljudsko oko, s tom razlikom da ljudsko oko ima širi kut gledanja.

NAMJENA

Normalni: 40-50mm
                                                      

Ove žarišne duljine stvaraju dojam običnosti, normalnosti i svakodnevnosti, zato što pokrivaju otprilike isto područje kao i ljudske oči, ako zanemarimo periferni vid. Za početnika, ovo su žarišne duljine kojima je najteže ovladati, jer im nedostaje ekstremnost širokog kuta, i intimnost teleobjektiva. S druge strane, snimke koje uspijete uhvatiti ovim objektivom imaju to svojstvo da neposredno i trenutno uvlače gledatelja, budući da najviše podsjećaju na stvarnost, stvarna sjećanja, emocije i misli. Slike snimljene normalnim objektivom znaju biti nevjerojatno upečatljive upravo zbog svoje “običnosti”. Zbog toga se početnicima savjetuje da vježbaju upravo s ovim žarišnim duljinama; tako neće svoj nedostatak ideja, vještine i talenta moći prikrivati ekstremnim optičkim efektima širokih i tele objektiva. Normalna žarišna pokazuje vaše ideje, a ne svojstvo objektiva.





Tele-objektivi – žarišna duljina tih objektiva je od 70 mm naviše. Koriste se za snimanje udaljenih objekata. Kut snimanja je uži od normalnog, a dubinska oštrina je sve manja porastom žarišne duljine. Konstrukcijski su takvi objektivi i veći i teži pa se često kod snimanja koriste monopodi ili stativi. Također, vrijedi pravilo, ako se želi snimati iz ruke bez zamućenja uslijed drhatanj ruke, brzina zatvarača mora biti barem obrnuto proporcionalna žarišnoj duljini (npr. na 200 mm brzina zatvarača mora biti barem 1/200 s ili kraća). Porastom žarišne duljine raste i minimalna udaljenost izoštravanja (npr. za objektiv 80-200 /2.8 je minimalna udaljenost otprilike metar i pol na 200 mm). Koriste se najčešće za snimanje životinja u divljini, sporta, a zbog malog deformiranja slike 70mm-135mm koriste se za portrete.

NAMJENA

Kratki teleobjektiv: 70-135mm

Ovo su jako lijepe portretne žarišne duljine, dakako za portrete od struka prema gore. Obično ih se  koristi izbliza i na otvorenoj blendi. Također, ove žarišne su odlične za vađenje djelića pejsaža;  70-100mm su najbolje pejsažne žarišne duljine, a 135mm je najbolji portretni objektiv.

 







Dugi teleobjektiv: 200-400mm

Dvoranski sportovi, vađenje djelića pejsaža, divlje životinje, zoo vrt. Također i ekstremno intimni portreti, snimke detalja lica. Zbog krivulje dubinske oštrine, kad pritvorite blendu na njima dobit ćete oštro lice i zamućenu pozadinu; s kratkim teleobjektivima je teže izgubiti pozadinu sa pritvorenom blendom.


Ekstremni teleobjektiv: >400mm
Sport na otvorenom, ptice, divlje životinje...



Zoom objektivi - objektivi promjenjive žarišne duljine. U počecima proizvodnje nisu bili popularni zbog slabe svjetlosne jačine (malih otvora blendi) i optičkih manjkavosti (nedostatak oštrine). Danas su ti nedostaci uklonjeni pa su postali praktični, jer nude za malu cijenu veliki raspon vidnih kutova u jednom objektivu, što smanjuje potrebu za mijenjanjem objektiva.

NAMJENA

Pogodan je za različite namjene od portreta do pejzažne fotografije.


Posebne vrste objektiva :


Objektiv “riblje oko” (Fisheye) - karakterizira ekstremno mala žarišna duljina ( ispod 12 mm) i ekstremno velik kut snimanja (čak i preko 180 stupnjeva, tj. da objektiv “vidi iza sebe”). Slika je u obliku kruga, a deformacije slike nestvarne. Koristi se za eksperimentiranje i neuobičajene efekte.

NAMJENA

Dobri su za ilustriranje fisheye efekta, uglavnom. Osim ekstremnih geometrijskih razvlačenja prostora, ili razvlačenja osoba, nisu posebno korisni, ali su zato vrlo zabavni.





Makro objektiv
karakterizira jako mala minimalna udaljenost snimanja. Takvim objektivom moguće se sasvim približiti objektu snimanja što rezultira velikim povećanjima i zgodno je za istraživanje mikro svijeta.


NAMJENA

Kukci, detalji cvijeća, nakit, iznimno sitne stvari, portreti.
Da, dobro ste pročitali: makro objektivi su odlični za portrete, ako želite izvući puno detalja s lica. Obično su iznimno oštri, i dobar su izbor ako vam je bitna apsolutna detaljnost slike. Dobar 100mm makro je prva stvar koju biste trebali razmotriti, uz standardni objektiv, budući da će vam poslužiti i kao kratki teleobjektiv za portrete.

 

“Tilt and shift” objektiv : Tilt (nagib) i shift (pomak) označavaju dvije osnovne mogućnosti gibanja prednje leće tih objektiva. Tilt ili nagib je definiran kao kut koji zatvara ravnina prednje leće i ravnina senzora (filma). Time se kontrolira orijentacija fokusne ravnine, što za posljedicu ima samo dio slike oštrim. Shift ili pomak predstavlja pomak osi objektiva spram osi fotoaparata pri čemu prednji element objektiva i senzor ostaju u paralelnim ravninama. Tako se npr. pri fotografiranju visokih zgrada izbjegavaju rušeće linije tj. one ispadaju paralelne. Koriste si pri fotografiranju arhitekture, a mogu se koristiti kao trik objektivi za izradu prividnih minijatura.

NAMJENA

Arhitektura, interijeri i sl. Takvi objektivi su teška egzotika i služe za ispravljanje geometrijskih izobličenja nastalih pri fotografiranju zgrada, drveća i sl. na širokom kutu.

 

DODACI ZA OBJEKTIVE


Sjenila – postavljaju se ispred objektiva. Služe kako bi se prilikom snimanja zaštitili od pada direktnog svjetla u objektiv i time spriječili stvaranje neželjene refleksije. Praktični su i pri snimanju na kiši. Kod izbora sjenila važno je da sjenilo odgovara vidnom kutu objektiva jer će inače osjenčiti rubove fotografije (ako je vidni kut objektiva veći).Točnije imat ćemo snimljeno sjenilo na rubovima fotografije.


 

Filtri - Fotografski filter je disk od obojenog plastičnog želatina ili obojenog stakla u kućištu. Kućište se stavlja ispred objektiva ili ispred rasvjetnog tijela. Osim što služe korekciji boja i kontrasta na fotografiji. Obavezni su dio zaštite objektiva. Leću objektiva štite od prašine i ogrebotina. Zapamtite lakše je kupiti novi filter od 100 kuna kad se ošteti nego novi objektiv od nekoliko tisuća kuna.



 
 

Telekonverteri – je optički sistem koji se postavlja između fotoaparata i objektiva. Povećava žarišnu duljinu objektiva, ali i smanjuje svjetlosnu jakost objektiva. Postoje konverteri sa faktorom 2x i 3x. Kod objektiva 50/1.4 telekonverter će povećati žarišnu duljinu na 100mm ali smanjiti blendu sa 1.4 na 2.8. dok telekonverter smanjuje blendu 1.4 na 5.6 i povećati žarišnu duljinu na 150mm. Telekonverter 2x smanjuje četiri puta, a 3x smanjuje osam puta svjetlosnu jakost objektiva. Telekonverteri se koriste na kvalitetnijim objektivima.






Makro prstenovi - umeću se između objektiva i tijela SLR fotoaparata i time se dobiva slični učinak kao kad se kod makro objektiva prednja leća izbacuje prema naprijed. Tako se smanjuje minimalna udaljenost izoštravanja, pa se objektu snimanja može prići bliže, i time on postaje veći na slici.. Postoje razne vrste prstenova. Neki omogućuju autofokusu da funkcionira preko poluga ili kontakata s fotoaparatom, a neki imaju rudimentarnu konstrukciju i omogućuju samo manualno fokusiranje. Prsteni dolaze u različitim duljinama te se kombiniraju, ovisno o objektivu koji se koristi kod snimanja.




 
...eto dragi naši, nakon ovog ubzanog tečaja, odvažite se i pronađite pravi objektiv za sebe! A ukoliko neki proizvod ne možete pronaći na našim stranicama, molimo vas da nas kontaktirate, jer zbog velikog broja proizvoda nismo u mogućnosti sve proizvode imati na webu.



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